Tons of Tallow Wood Fruits

Tallow wood (Ximenia americana) is a thorny sprawling shrub or small tree (usually) of dry places and is shown above along the beginning of the trail at the south Oslo Riverfront Conservation Area.  Its genus name, Ximenia, honors Francisco Ximenez, a…

It’s a Bug Eat Bug World Out There – Even in a Gall

A plant gall is an abnormal outgrowth of plant tissue caused by a "gall-maker", which could be an insect, mite, virus, nematode or fungus.  The inter-relationship between plant and gall-maker is complex, very specific, and developed over eons.  The relationship…